Overview of leather knowledge
Release date:2017-02-15 Author: Click:
Leather is by hair removal and tanning and other physical and chemical processing has been degeneration is not perishable animal skin. Leather is made of natural protein fibers in three-dimensional space weaving closely, the surface has a special grain layer, with natural grain and luster, feel comfortable.
History The leather industry covers leather, leather, leather, leather, fur and other products, as well as leather chemicals, leather hardware, leather machinery, accessories and other supporting industries.  high correlation with the upstream and downstream, relying on the market pull, product evergreen, set foreign exchange, enrich the people, employment as one of the characteristics.
China's leather industry, through the adjustment and optimization of the structure, in the country has initially formed a group of specialized division of labor clearly, highlight the characteristics of the local economy plays a pivotal role in the production of leather regional and professional market. Their formation, laid the foundation for the development of China's leather industry.
In an increasingly competitive market environment, the Chinese leather industry can achieve such a result is not easy, but also proved that the vitality of China's leather industry strong and powerful. Leather and its products market potential is great, the global demand for leather about 100 million square meters, equivalent to 300 million leather (standard leather) production, China's leather production standard skin nearly 70 million, accounting for about Global leather production of 23.33%. However, China's leather shoe and its related industries should also be seen, we are now in many ways there are shortcomings, although China is the world's leather production power, but not a leather power, in terms of quality, value is still in the Weak position, need to be in this market environment to be honed and improved.
Leather classification according to the use of sub-life with leather, defense leather, industrial and agricultural leather, cultural and sports goods leather; by tanning method chrome tanning, vegetable tanning, oil tanning, aldehyde tanned leather and tanning leather The In addition, can be divided into light leather and heavy leather. Generally used for vamps, clothing, gloves and other leather, known as light leather, according to area measurement; with thick animal skin by tanning or tanning, for leather shoes, outsole and industrial accessories such as leather For heavy leather, by weight. According to animal species, there are pig leather, leather, sheep leather, horse leather, donkey leather and kangaroo leather, and a small amount of fish leather, reptile leather, amphibian leather, ostrich leather and so on. Which leather is divided into cattle leather, buffalo leather, yak leather and leather leather; sheep leather is divided into sheep leather and goat leather. In the main types of leather, cattle leather and sheep leather, its surface is small, small hair, the internal structure of compact and compact, leather body has a good fullness and elasticity, good physical properties. Therefore, the excellent cattle leather and sheep leather is generally used as high-grade leather products, the price is a large class of leather in a higher class. According to the level of the first layer of leather and the second layer of leather, of which the first layer of leather with full grain leather and repair leather; two leather and two layers of leather and cattle leather. According to the manufacturing method of leather
"Leather" in the leather products market is a common word, is the difference between synthetic leather and natural leather, a customary name. In the consumer's mind, "leather" also has a false meaning. Animal leather is a natural leather, that is, we often say that the leather. It is made of animal (raw hides) tanned by leather factory, made of various characteristics, strength, feel, color, pattern leather materials, modern leather products are essential materials.
Leather animal leather processing process is very complex, made of finished leather need to go through dozens of processes: raw leather ---- water ---- to the meat ---- degreasing ---- hair removal ---- immersion - - expansion ---- gray ---- softening ---- pickling ---- tanning ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- taper ---- tanning ----- --- dyeing ---- refueling ----- filling ----- dry ---- finishing ---- finishing ---- finished leather. Its type is also very much, according to the material is generally common in sheep leather, leather, horse leather, snake leather, pig leather crocodile leather, according to performance can be divided into two layers of leather, whole leather, suede, modified Leather, leather, leather, leather, leather, and so on.
Among them, leather, sheepskin and pig skin is used in the three leather raw materials.
Will be a variety of animal waste leather and leather waste crushed, the deployment of chemical raw materials processing made of. The surface of the processing technology with the dermis of the surface of the skin, embossed leather, which is characterized by neat edges of the skin, the use of high prices, cheap; but the skin is generally thick, the intensity is poor, only suitable for the production of parity briefcase, , The club sets and other stereotypes of technology products and cheap belt, the longitudinal section of the fiber organization uniform, can identify the liquid material mixed with the solidification effect.
Artificial leather is also called imitation leather or rubber, PVC and PU and other man-made materials in general. It is in the textile base or non-woven base
Leather, made of a variety of different formulations of PVC and PU and other foam or film processing made of, according to different strength, wear resistance, cold and color, gloss, pattern and other requirements made of processing, with color varieties Many, waterproof performance, margin neat, high utilization rate and the price is relatively cheap leather.
Artificial leather is a class of materials that are very popular up to now and are widely used to make leather products, or substitute parts of leather materials. It is increasingly advanced production process, is the second floor of the processing of widely used. Today, very similar to the leather characteristics of the artificial leather has been available to market, its surface technology is extremely basic fiber structure, almost to the effect of leather, the price and the price of domestic first layer of skin is comparable.
Synthetic leather is a plastic product that simulates the composition and structure of natural leather and can be used as its substitute material. The surface is mainly polyurethane, base material is polyester, cotton, polypropylene and other synthetic fibers made of non-woven fabrics. Its positive and negative are very similar with the leather, and has a certain permeability. It is characterized by beautiful luster, difficult to mold and insects, and is closer to natural leather than ordinary artificial leather.
Synthetic leather variety, a variety of synthetic leather with non-woven base fabric and polyurethane microporous surface layer and other common features, the non-woven fiber varieties and processing technology is different. Synthetic leather surface is smooth, through the thickness, color and strength uniform, in the waterproof, Naisuan Jian, microbial better than natural leather.
Leather simple type pure aniline leather leather without pigment and only aniline effect of modified leather, only the world's best leather can be classified into this category. People who love real natural products are particularly fond of this leather. 5% of the world's leather production belongs to this category, only some of the A-class leather meet the standards of this category. This kind of leather does not have any finishing, may only thin layer of wax coated or gently coated with a layer of oil to enhance the feel and beauty. Use the machine to fall soft or polish is usually the final finishing process for this type of leather. All aniline leather and pure aniline leather, only some of the world's best leather can be classified into this category. The only difference between it and pure aniline leather is that the raw material used will be slightly lower, with only a thin layer of protective layer on its surface, usually painted on the surface with wax and clear paint. Semi-aniline leather This leather requires a little more processing, the surface a little finish, the paint gently sprayed on the surface of the leather so that the color uniform and cover some of the original flaws. This leather has good light resistance and scratch resistance, and easy to clean. 10-15% of the world's leather production belongs to this leather. Most B-class leathers meet this type of standard. Interestingly, aniline, semi-aniline and pure aniline leather is not necessarily full grain leather, nubuck leather is a typical full polished aniline leather. A lot of discoloration leather is starting to gently clean with sandpaper and flatten the grain. The surface of the grain surface will be worn to reduce the impact of grain defects, and then through a different finishing method to create a
Leather a fake grain to imitate the whole grain of leather. 18% of the world's leather production belongs to this leather. This kind of leather through more processing, such as: frosted, polished, embossed, painted paint to cover up the original flaws, insect bite, barbed wire scratches, corners, etc. can be used in the coating before the frost removed. The first layer of skin is a grain of the outer skin, about 0.9 to 1.5mm, called the C-class leather to meet the standards of this category. This kind of leather is obviously necessary to polish, because in addition to artificial artificial fake to replace the original surface, no other useful. World leather production The remaining 65% is not suitable for furniture, can only be used as footwear, clothes, belts, handbags and car cushions. Full grain leather grain pattern remains intact, natural pores and texture clearly visible in leather.
Just as the wood grain, wood and scar should show the natural qualities of the tree to which it belongs, the leather should also show the characteristics of the animal to which it belongs. The better the leather, the less the need for modification. The original grain of the cheaper leather is ground and painted, embossed with fake particles instead, and they are not as soft as full grain leather. Despite being covered with a layer of paint, the original texture changes are still visible. Half grain leather will gently peel the grain surface of the leather part, but should remain on the whole surface of the leather surface is not worn away that part of the grain, the grain can still see the natural pores and texture of the leather. As the word "Top Top" was used in English, the term became the most easily confused in the leather industry. People guess "Top Top" that the best, top, here is not, here use the "Top Top" the word because the top layer can be frosted, painted pigments and stamps. Basically, half grain leather is not a stratified leather. Layered leather to the skin into several layers, with grain surface called the first layer of skin, followed by the second layer of skin, three layers of leather, with meat layer for the meat surface profile skin. Using modern technology, it is possible to paint, paint and emboss the apply skin for furniture. Of course, the skin is not as durable as the first layer of skin, but adjust their thickness to get interesting results. The most challenging is to make them resilient. Unless otherwise specified, the general coating of the profile skin can not be used as a cushion.
"Leather" in the leather products market is a common word, is the difference between synthetic leather and natural leather for a customary name; in the consumer's mind, "leather" also has a non-leather Fake meaning. In fact, leather is leather, it is mainly processed by the mammalian skin. Many types of leather, variety, different structure, different quality, the price difference between the poor. Therefore, the leather is not only all natural leather collectively, but also a vague logo on the commodity market. How to identify the leather hand touch: that is, touch the leather surface, if smooth, soft, plump, flexible feeling is leather; and general synthetic leather made of astringent, rigid, poor flexibility.
See: the leather surface has a clearer pores, patterns, brown leather has more symmetrical fine pores, yak skin has thick and sparse pores, goatskin fish scales pores.
Smell: all leather has the smell of leather; and artificial leather has a strong irritant plastic smell.
Lit: from the dermis and leather back to tear a little fiber, lit, after the issue of pungent smell, knot is the artificial leather; all hair hair smell, not hard knot is the leather. Identification of artificial leather and synthetic leather with the above four basic identification methods, in order to compare the identification of artificial leather, synthetic leather is obvious. In addition, artificial leather and synthetic leather also has the following characteristics:
1, with your fingers pressed leather surface, no obvious pores wrinkles, such as pressing after wrinkles, it will not be obvious natural disappear.
2, leather no pores, which is an important feature to identify the true and false leather.
3, cut the corners of the burning, taste, but not the hair of the coke smell. The type of leather is different, its characteristics and uses are also different. Such as leather leather fine, high strength, the most suitable for the production of leather shoes; sheep leather light, thin and soft, is the ideal fabric leather clothing; pig leather breathable, permeable steam performance is better. Pig leather: leather surface of the pores round and thick, more inclined into the leather. Pore arranged in three groups, leather surface showing many small triangle pattern
Cattle leather: cattle leather and buffalo leather are known as cattle leather, but the two also have some differences. Yellow cattle leather surface of the pores were round, more straight into the leather, the pores close and uniform, irregular arrangement, as if the stars. Buffalo leather surface pores than the cattle leather thick, the number of pores than the cattle leather rare, leathery more relaxed, as the water full of metamorphosis.
Ma leather: leather surface of the hair is also oval, slightly larger than the cattle leather pores, arranged more rules.
Sheep leather: leather grain pores oblong, clear pores, composed of a few groups, arranged in a fish scale.
Leather logo is the China Leather Industry Association in the State Administration for Industry and Commerce registered trademark, is the high-grade natural leather
Genuine logo logo. Leather logo for natural leather and natural fur production of products, including shoes, travel shoes, leather (fur) clothing, luggage, leather bags, other leather goods, leather goods and other products. Where the leather goods marked with leather logo have three characteristics:
1, the product is made of high quality leather;
2, the product is well-made in the high-end products;
3, consumers buy wear leather logo leather products can enjoy a good after-sales service.
Not made of leather products can not wear leather logo, want to wear leather logo, need to undergo a rigorous review of the China Leather Industry Association, approved before you can hang. China Leather Industry Association every year to its quality testing to ensure product quality. At present, there are more than 200 leather, leather shoes, bags of enterprises wearing a leather logo, please pay attention when consumers buy. To develop the international market, in 1998 the leather logo has been registered in 14 countries. The registered trademark of the leather logo is made of a whole sheep, a pair of horns, a leather form of art deformation pattern. The overall pattern is round drum, the pattern of the central GLP three letters, is the abbreviation of leather products, the main color of the pattern is black and white, only three letters for the red. Patterns: cattle, sheep, pigs are three major leather leather natural leather raw materials, the pattern was round drum, on the one hand a symbol of the tannery industry, the main processing equipment drum, on the other hand a symbol of the leather industry rolling forward development of.
The current leather products on the market are leather and artificial leather two categories, and synthetic leather and leather is made of textile base or non-woven base, were coated with polyurethane and use Special foaming made, with the surface feel resembles the leather, but the permeability, wear resistance, cold resistance are not as leather. How to distinguish between genuine and fake leather products?
1. leathery leather: natural leather has its own special natural pattern, leathery natural glossy, hand press or pinch leather, leather no dead wrinkles or dead folds, no cracks; and leather leather leather like Natural leather, but look carefully pattern is not natural, shiny than natural leather bright, mostly bright colors.
2. leather body: natural leather, soft and tough feel, and imitation leather products, although also very soft, but the lack of toughness, the climate is cold when the leather body hard. When the hand twists and turns when the leather, natural leather back to nature, flexibility is better, and imitation leather products back to the movement blunt, poor flexibility.
3. Incision: natural leather incision at the same color, the fiber is clearly visible and fine. And imitation leather products incision without natural leather fiber sense, or visible at the bottom of the fiber and resin, or from the incision to see the end of cloth and resin glue two levels.
4. leather inside: natural leather positive smooth and smooth pores and patterns. The opposite side of the leather has a clear fiber bundle, was plush and uniform. And imitation leather products in some synthetic leather positive and negative, inside the light